eISSN: 1734-4948
ISSN: 0860-6161
Advances in Rehabilitation
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vol. 37
Original article

Effect of cardio training and smoking cessation on hemodynamic variables and Body Shape Index in diabetic smokers

Alaa Mohamed Naguib
Nesreen Ghreeb Elnahas
Yasmine Abd Elfatah
Rana Hesham Elbanaa

Department of Cardiovascular/Respiratory Disorder and Geriatrics, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt
Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
Advances in Rehabilitation, 2023, 37(3), 16–22
Online publish date: 2023/09/25
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by its severity, debilitating nature and significant economic burden, since it causes life-threatening complications. DM occurrence and frequency are increasing, impacting public health and economic aspects. Objectives: to study the effect of Cardio Training and Smoking Cessation on Hemodynamic Variables and Body Shape Index in Diabetic Smokers.

Material and methods
The current investigation enrolled 60 male smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). All patients were evaluated for height (cm),weight (kg), body mass index (BMI), A-shaped body index (ASBI), respiratory rate (RR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mmHg), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation (SpO2) at the beginning of the study and following 3 months of the intervention. The participants were randomly allocated into 2 equal-sized groups; Group (A) patients administered Metformin1gm and received cardio training (indoor treadmill brisk walking for 12 weeks, 3 times a week, each session 60 min, with submaximal intensity 50-60% of maximal HR reserve), a smoking cessation program, and nutritional advice; and group (B) patients administered Metformin1gm and received a smoking cessation program and nutritional advice.

The study showed a significant difference in weight (kg) and BMI for both groups post-intervention, with a more significant percentage change across group B than group A, with p-value (p < 0.05).

Aerobic training is regarded as one of the most effective interventions in the management of type 2 diabetic patients, as it maintains good glycemic and weight control. Moreover, diabetic smokers who quit smoking can benefit from aerobic exercise, as it can probably be the main reason for improving smoking withdrawal symptoms.


Tobacco, Aerobic Exercise, Blood circulation, Body weight

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